Bronchial Washings: obtain pooled or targeted saline washes of lung fields
Bronchial Lavage: targeted samples of alveolar regions collected in a manner to reduce tracheobronchial contaminants
Brushings: protected brushes for microbiological or cytological samples are placed in the targeted airway
Biopsies: both endobronchial and fluoroscopic-guided transbronchial biopsies are routinely performed
Fine Needle Aspirates (FNA): allows for lymph node samples or direct aspiration of mass cells
These samples are performed with a pathologist present to examine the specimen for an initial and more immediate diagnosis.
Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS): utilizes ultrasound in the airway to visualize lesions for sampling. This allows for specific biopsies without injury to benign structures.
Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy (ENB): utilizes 3D CT scan to obtain lavages, brushings, FNA’s and biopsies in areas that would normally be inaccessible with traditional bronchoscopy techniques.
Bronchography: allows visualization of the tracheobronchial tree by injecting contrast medium under fluoroscopic assistance.